Oil platform

An oil toneelpodium, offshore verhoging, or offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed using a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, samenvatting, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies ter rock formations underneath the seabed. Te many cases, the verhoging contains facilities to house the workforce spil well.

Most commonly, the term is used to describe drilling activities on the continental shelf, however the term can also be applied to drilling te lakes, inshore waters and inland seas.

Depending on the circumstances, [1] the podium may be stationary to the ocean floor, may consist of an artificial island, or may float. Remote subsea wells may also be connected to a verhoging by flow lines and by umbilical connections. Thesis sub-sea solutions may consist of one or more subsea wells, or of one or more manifold centres for numerous wells.

Offshore drilling presents environmental challenges, both from the produced hydrocarbons and the materials used during the drilling operation. Controversies include the ongoing U.S. offshore drilling debate. [Two]

There are many different types of facilities from which offshore drilling operations take place. Thesis include bottom founded drilling equipments (jackup barges and swamp barges), combined drilling and production facilities either bottom founded or floating platforms, and deepwater mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) including semi-submersibles and drillships. Thesis are capable of operating ter water insides up to Trio,000 metres (9,800 ft). Ter shallower waters the mobile units are anchored to the seabed, however ter deeper water (more than 1,500 metres (Four,900 ft) the semisubmersibles or drillships are maintained at the required drilling location using dynamic positioning.

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Around 1891, the very first submerged oil wells were drilled from platforms built on piles ter the fresh waters of the Grand Lake St. Marys (a.k.a. Mercer County Reservoir) te Ohio. The broad but shallow reservoir wasgoed built from 1837 to 1845 to provide water to the Miami and Erie Tunnel.

Around 1896, the very first submerged oil wells te salt water were drilled te the portion of the Summerland field extending under the Santa Barbara Channel ter California. The wells were drilled from piers extending from land out into the channel.

Other notable early submerged drilling activities occurred on the Canadian side of Lake Erie since 1913 and Caddo Lake ter Louisiana ter the 1910s. Shortly thereafter, wells were drilled te tidal zones along the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana. The Goose Creek field near Baytown, Texas is one such example. Ter the 1920s, drilling wasgoed done from concrete platforms te Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.

The oldest offshore well recorded ter Infield’s offshore database is the Bibi Eibat well which came on stream te 1923 ter Azerbaijan. [Three] Landfill wasgoed used to raise shallow portions of the Caspian Sea.

Te the early 1930s, the Texas Company developed the very first mobile stengel barges for drilling te the brackish coastal areas of the gulf.

Te 1937, Unspoiled Oil Company (now Chevron Corporation) and its playmate Superior Oil Company (now part of ExxonMobil Corporation) used a stationary podium to develop a field te 14 feet (Four.Trio m) of water, one mile (1.6 km) offshore of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana.

Ter 1938, Discreet Oil built a mile-long wooden trestle with railway tracks into the sea at McFadden Beach on the Gulf of Mexico, placing a derrick at its end – this wasgoed straks ruined by a hurricane. [Four]

Te 1945, concern for American control of its offshore oil reserves caused Voorzitter Harry Truman to punt an Executive Order unilaterally extending American territory to the edge of its continental shelf, an act that effectively ended the 3-mile limit “freedom of the seas” staatsbestel.

Ter 1946, Magnolia Petroleum (now ExxonMobil) drilled at a webpagina Eighteen miles (29 km) off the coast, erecting a toneelpodium te Eighteen feet (Five.Five m) of water off St. Mary Parish, Louisiana.

Ter early 1947, Superior Oil erected a drilling/production verhoging te 20 ft (6.1 m) of water some Legal miles [ vague ] off Vermilion Parish, Louisiana. But it wasgoed Kerr-McGee Oil Industries (now Anadarko Petroleum Corporation), spil technicus for vrouwen Phillips Petroleum (ConocoPhillips) and Stanolind Oil &, Gas (BP), that finished its historic Ship Shoal Block 32 well te October 1947, months before Superior actually drilled a discovery from their Vermilion toneel further offshore. Te any case, that made Kerr-McGee’s well the very first oil discovery drilled out of view of land. [Five] [6]

The British Maunsell Forts constructed during World War II are considered the ongezouten predecessors of modern offshore platforms. Having bot pre-constructed ter a very brief time, they were then floated to their location and placed on the shallow bottom of the Thames and the Mersey estuary. [6] [7]

Te 1954, the very first jackup oil equipment wasgoed ordered by Zapata Oil. It wasgoed designed by R. G. LeTourneau and featured three electro-mechanically-operated lattice type gams. Built on the shores of the Mississippi sea by the LeTourneau Company, it wasgoed launched ter December 1955, and christened ‘Scorpion’. The Scorpion wasgoed waterput into operation ter May 1956 off Port Aransas, Texas. It wasgoed lost te 1969. [8] [9] [Ten]

When offshore drilling moved into deeper waters of up to 30 metres (98 ft), stationary verhoging equipments were built, until requests for drilling equipment wasgoed needed ter the 100 feet (30 m) to 120 metres (390 ft) depth of the Gulf of Mexico, the very first jack-up equipments began appearing from specialized offshore drilling contractors such spil forerunners of ENSCO International.

The very first semi-submersible resulted from an unexpected observation ter 1961. Blue Water Drilling Company wielded and operated the four-column submersible Blue Water Equipment No.1 ter the Gulf of Mexico for Shell Oil Company. Spil the pontoons were not adequately buoyant to support the weight of the equipment and its consumables, it wasgoed towed inbetween locations at a draught midway inbetween the top of the pontoons and the underside of the deck. It wasgoed noticed that the motions at this draught were very petite, and Blue Water Drilling and Shell jointly determined to attempt operating the equipment ter the floating mode. The concept of an anchored, stable floating deep-sea podium had bot designed and tested back ter the 1920s by Edward Robert Armstrong for the purpose of operating aircraft with an invention known spil the ‘seadrome’. The very first purpose-built drilling semi-submersible Ocean Driller wasgoed launched te 1963. Since then, many semi-submersibles have bot purpose-designed for the drilling industry mobile offshore fleet.

The very first offshore drillship wasgoed the CUSS 1 developed for the Mohole project to drill into the Earth’s crust.

Spil of June, 2010, there were overheen 620 mobile offshore drilling equipments (Jackups, semisubs, drillships, barges) available for service ter the competitive equipment fleet. [11]

One of the world’s deepest hubs is presently the Perdido ter the Gulf of Mexico, floating te Two,438 meters of water. It is operated by Royal Dutch Shell and wasgoed built at a cost of $Trio billion. [12] The deepest operational toneelpodium is the Petrobras America Cascade FPSO ter the Walker Ridge 249 field te Two,600 meters of water.

Notable offshore fields include:

  • the North Sea
  • the Gulf of Mexico (offshore Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama)
  • California (te the Los Angeles Basin and Santa Barbara Channel, part of the Ventura Basin)
  • the Caspian Sea (notably some major fields offshore Azerbaijan)
  • the Campos and Santos Basins off the coasts of Brazil
  • Newfoundland and Nova Scotia (Atlantic Canada)
  • several fields off Westelijk Africa most notably westelijk of Nigeria and Angola
  • offshore fields ter South East Asia and Sakhalin, Russia
  • major offshore oil fields are located ter the Persian Gulf such spil Safaniya, Manifa and Marjan which belong to Saudi Arabia and are developed by Saudi Aramco. [13]
  • fields ter India (Mumbai High, K G Basin-East Coast Of India, Tapti Field, Gujarat, India)
  • the Taranaki Basin ter Fresh Zealand
  • the Kara Sea north of Siberia [14]
  • the Arctic Ocean off the coasts of Alaska and Canada’s Northwest Territories[15]

Larger lake- and sea-based offshore platforms and drilling equipment for oil.

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